Proper nutrition for weight loss is not about strict prohibition, fasting and rejection of your favorite foods. First of all, these are self -care, food choices and what makes you feel fun and improves your quality of life.
The all-or-nothing principle does not work in this case. No need to try to change everything in one day and all at once - this usually leads to damage and, consequently, overeating. It is best to make small changes gradually. This will help you achieve more results in the long run. As your small changes become a habit, add healthier rules.
The main thing to remember is that striving for health is a lifelong journey. You have to enjoy it, not the pressure.
Why Eat Healthy Food?
In addition to helping you maintain a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and protein, there are other important benefits.
Poor nutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency worldwide. Scientists associate the occurrence of many chronic diseases with improper diet. For example, 38. 5 thousand men and 67 thousand women participated in one of the studies. During observations for 8-12 years, it was found that snacks contribute to the deterioration of biomarkers, and can also cause heart disease, high blood pressure (high blood pressure), type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and some types of cancer.
Evidence shows that 30–35% of cancer deaths are related to diet, 25–30% are due to tobacco, 15–20% are due to infection, and the remaining percentage is due to other factors such as radiation, stress, physical inadequacies. activities, environmental pollution, etc.
Poor nutrition not only affects physical but also mental health. According to the Mental Health Foundation, two-thirds of people who eat fresh fruits and vegetables daily do not have mental health problems.
Therefore, the relationship between good nutrition and a healthy weight, reduced risk of chronic disease, and overall health is too important to ignore.
How long does it take to form eating habits?
Everyone is looking for a quick way out to lose weight today, and changing habits that promote it and last for long periods of time takes time. This has been confirmed by a recent study.
For a long time, it was believed that for a stable habit to emerge, 21-28 days was enough. This statement is primarily related to the activities of a physician named Maxwell Maltz. In the 1950s, he was a plastic surgeon and realized that his patients needed at least 21 days to learn to look in the mirror comfortably after surgery. In addition, he realized that people who have amputated legs or arms take the same amount of time to lose the sensation of a ghostly limb.
As a result, he developed this idea in his book Psychocybernetics, published in 1960. After that, the idea was taken up by many doctors, public figures, coaches. Over the years, the word "minimum" has disappeared, and the 21-day period has become a "scientific" law.
What does the new study discuss?
Philip Lally is a health psychology researcher at University College London. In a paper published in the European Journal of Social Psychology, Lally and her analytical team were able to find out how long it takes to form a habit.
The study involved 96 people. Each chose a new habit for 12 weeks and each day reported whether they followed it or not.
Some people have applied simple rules like "drink a bottle of water at lunch. " Others choose more challenging tasks, such as running 15 minutes before lunch. After 12 weeks, the researchers analyzed the data to determine how long it would take for each person to transition from starting a new behavior to implementing it automatically.
On average, it takes more than 2 months, or rather 66 days. But the time it takes to form a new habit can be highly dependent on behavior, people, and circumstances. In total, the study took 18 to 254 people.
How to start eating properly and what habits can help in the process of losing weight?
1. Lack of calories
The main idea is as old as the world -you have to expend more calories than you eat. . .
A negative calorie balance forces the body to use its accumulated reserves to supply the body with the energy it needs. This energy mainly comes from the storage of carbohydrates and fats in the body.
During the weight loss phase, the daily caloric deficit is between 300 and 500 kcal.
In addition, it is important to monitor BJU (protein, fat and carbohydrate) indicators.
2. Reduce the amount of fat in food
According to the WHO (World Health Organization), priority should be given to unsaturated fats (found in fish, avocados, nuts, etc. ) and reduction of consumption of saturated fats (fatty meats, butter, palm, coconut oil, etc. ), as well as trans fatsindustries found in baked, smoked, fried, comfort foods, pies, chips, crackers, etc.
Fat should not exceed 30% of the total amount of food consumed during a weight loss diet, of which less than 10% should be saturated, and no more than 1% trans fat.
There is no need to give up fat completely in the diet. They are needed to supply the body with unsaturated fatty acids, namely linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. They are not produced by the body and are mostly found in vegetable and fish oils.
3. Get enough protein
Protein is the body’s most important building block and must comprise around 40% of total energy needs.
When you are trying to lose weight, a protein -rich diet can make you feel full in the long run by influencing the hunger hormone ghrelin. Protein also counteracts muscle loss during the diet. The more muscle mass, the more energy is used and the higher the calorie requirement.
Proteins of animal origin have a higher biological value than plant proteins. However, they also tend to contain extra fat and cholesterol, so their use should be simple.
According to research, a high -protein breakfast can reduce food cravings and calorie intake throughout the day.
4. Avoid moderate carbohydrates
Overall, the carbohydrates in the diet should be around 30%. They are usually divided into medium and complex. It takes more time to process the latter and produce less insulin, which helps make you feel full and avoid overeating.
Medium carb foods include sugar, white flour toast, jam, soda, juice, and more. For moderate carbohydrates, it is better to choose the first half of the day, when blood sugar levels are low after sleep, glycogen stores are depleted and the body's energy needs to be restored.
For foods high in carbohydrates, grains are ideal because, in addition to their high mineral and fiber content, they also fill the body and speed up digestion.
As a guide, you can useThe Harvard Healthy Eating Pyramid. . .
5. If you can't, but you really want to
As you know, "the forbidden fruit is sweet. " The more you forbid yourself to do something, the more you want it. And guilt, which can be overcome if you succumb to temptation, makes some people give up and let go of what they started.
Therefore, the first step may not be a complete rejection of the hazardous product, but a reduction in the size of the part and a reduction in the frequency of its use. Over time, you will begin to crave these foods less.
6. Avoid drinks that get fat
Avoid sodas and fruit juices.According to one study, these drinks were low in nutrients, if not, and excessive intake caused Americans to experience a 20% weight gain between 1977 and 2007.
A 0. 5 liter bottle of cola contains 240 calories and 65 grams of sugar. It has been proven that people who drink most water consume an average of 200 calories a day less than those who drink other beverages.
Drink water before meals. One study found that drinking water half an hour before a meal could reduce appetite and increase weight loss by 44% in just 3 months.
If you’re not ready to immediately give up an unhealthy drink, use simple tricks that can fool your brain.
See the image below. Which line is larger: horizontal or vertical?
Actually, the two lines are the same length, but our brains tend to exaggerate the vertical lines. In other words, transferring this knowledge to the topic under consideration, the taller glasses and cups appear to be larger and larger than the round and wide ones.
This way, you can drink about 20% from tall and thin glasses rather than small and wide glasses without feeling dissatisfied.
7. Eliminate alcohol
When switching to a proper diet, it is advisable to stop drinking alcohol. Why is this necessary?
- Alcohol triggers an increase in appetite by acting on neurons, and also increases the likelihood of damage, unhealthy food choices and overeating.
- It negatively affects digestion, alters the secretion of gastric acid and its movement, which leads to metabolic disorders.
- Alcohol makes the water in the body linger, which is why in the morning many find swelling and extra weight on the scales.
- Drinking alcohol can damage the body’s ability to recover from exercise, thus reducing the ability to burn excess calories through exercise.
- Alcohol intake causes shorter and lower quality sleep, which affects hunger and forces people to switch from carbohydrates to eating fats. According to research, a sleep deficit every 30 minutes equals 83 extra calories throughout the day.
But it should be clarified that low -alcohol beverages in moderate doses do not cause great harm to the body. 100 ml of dried red wine contains 80 kcal, 100 ml of beer contains 45 kcal. For comparison, in vodka - 230 kcal per 100 g. Therefore, a glass of dry wine or a glass of beer can be drunk once a week without affecting weight loss.
8. Eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables provide the body with fiber, minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals. They serve several important functions in the body and are essential for healthy metabolic processes.
It is best to eat at least two servings of fruit and three servings of vegetables a day (one serving of about 150 g). Keep in mind that excessive fruit intake is not recommended, because it contains a lot of fructose, in contrast to low-calorie and nutritious vegetables.
9. Observe the speed of food intake
Your eating speed affects the size of the meal as well as the likelihood of weight gain. Our brains and intestines communicate constantly, so if your brain is distracted while eating, you probably won’t receive a signal whether you’re hungry or full.
Keep in mind that on average it takes about 20 minutes to get this information, so a slower meal can prevent overeating.
In addition, eating slowly is associated with more thorough chewing, which also contributes to weight maintenance. Studies comparing different eating speeds show that those who eat fast are 115% fatter than those who eat slowly.
10. Redefine the way you prepare food
The way you prepare food directly affects your health.
Grilling, smoking, frying, frying are popular methods of preparing meat and fish. However, using such a method, several potentially toxic compounds (polycyclic and heterocyclic) are produced in food, which are associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.
Healthier methods include grilling, stewing, steaming, etc. They do not contribute to the formation of these harmful compounds and make your food healthier.
11. Eat from a small plate
It has been shown that the size of cooking utensils can affect how much you eat. On large plates people put portions that are on average 30% more than regular dishes.
The same amount of food on large and small plates is felt by the brain differently, this is called the Delbeuf illusion.
Agree, it seems that the part on the left is quite small. We are sure you want extra food. At the same time, the portion on the plate on the right, filled to the brim, is felt more and, therefore, there is a feeling that it will be more satisfying.
12. Cut out seasonings and flavor enhancers
Salt, seasonings, store -bought sauces, and ketchup should be drunk to a minimum. A large number contain sugars, dyes, preservatives, flavor enhancers and stabilizers. They have a negative effect on the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
The WHO recommends taking no more than 5 grams of iodized salt per day (about 1 teaspoon). WHO Member States have set a goal to reduce global consumption by 30% by 2025, which will help prevent hypertension and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke among adults.
13. Control emotional eating.
Our relationship with food is closely linked to emotional health. We do not always take food to satisfy our hunger. Many turn to food to relieve stress or cope with unpleasant emotions such as anxiety, sadness, loneliness, or boredom. But learning healthier ways to deal with it can help you regain control. Serotonin levels play an important role here.
It is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and appetite, manage mood, and suppress pain. Since about 95% of serotonin is produced in the gastrointestinal tract, and the gastrointestinal tract is lined with hundreds of millions of nerve cells, it makes sense that the internal workings of the digestive system not only help digest food, but also manage emotional states.
14. Choose healthy snacks
Snacks are one of the key factors in maintaining a healthy diet and nutrition. If you choose healthy foods that are high in protein and nutrients, snacks can be an important part of your weight loss. Some of them can even help you stay full throughout the day and limit your cravings for unhealthy foods.
Avoid cookies and sweets, sandwiches and sparkling cheeses for dried fruit, nuts, vegetable sticks with hummus, natural yogurt, fruit, etc.
15. Be selective in the supermarket
In supermarkets, there are rules that cannot be called from the so -called "Outer Ring". As a rule, the healthiest products are located along the perimeter-fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, dairy products, cereals, etc. A large number of packaged and processed foods are placed between the rows.
Why are processed foods dangerous? Scientists are increasingly concluding that processed foods, with all their additives, lack of sugar and fiber, can have a negative impact on the intestinal microbiota and the various bacteria that line its walls. As a result, the risk of chronic disease increases and fertile ground for overeating is created.
In one study, consumption of processed foods was associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease, another - with an increased risk of death from any cause.
In addition, special attention must be paid to the label on the product, which indicates the conditions and composition of storage. Keep in mind that the ingredients are listed in descending order, from highest to lowest. The less the better. Make sure the product does not contain sweeteners such as sugar alcohol, monosodium glutamate (E621), formaldehyde (E240), trans fats, dyes (E102, E104, E110, E122, E124, E129), etc.
16. Do not be distracted while eating
A new study claims that the sound perception of food intake influences eating habits. The study involved two groups of people who ate crunchy foods, one with white noise headphones and the other without. As a result, participants who were disturbed by white voices heard less food sounds, which made them eat more than those who heard restlessness.
Another interesting experiment, the results of which were published in 2016, claims that scrolling through social networks where you follow culinary publications or various grocery stores can cause so -called "visual hunger". In other words, even if you don’t physically need food, the body sends signals to the brain using the hunger hormones you want to eat.
The main thing to remember for a healthy relationship with food is: "Food is not the enemy. " Instead of focusing on what you can’t eat, think about what is healthy, new, and tasty that you can add to your diet to diversify your diet. you. Don’t try to change everything at once, form new healthy habits gradually and without stress.
As you know, a balanced diet is at least 50% of the result in the process of losing weight! Without it, even the most competent training will not bring the expected results.